United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview


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The card is printed in black and white and laminated. The front depicts the flags of Somalia and the United States. Some of the 13 phrases in English and Somali are, "My friend, I am hungry. Please provide me with food," and "My friend, if enemy troops come, please conceal me. They printed a bright yellow cardboard "gift certificate" depicting the 21 flags of the coalition nations and English text on one side, and the flags of the United Nations and Somalia with the same message in both English and Somali text on the other side.

The all-English text is, "The holder of this note is entitled to a bag of wheat, to be issued at the stadium complex. This Somali citizen has made a contribution to the Coalition forces by providing useful information. The information assisted Task Force Mogadishu with locating criminal elements, weapons cache sites, the surrendering of a personal weapon or crew served weapons. Treat this Somali citizen with respect and dignity.

Authorized signature. Please take this note to the Marines at the gate of Mogadishu stadium. You will receive wheat as a token of our gratitude. Consider us your friends. Together, with your assistance, we can make Mogadishu a peaceful city for the future of your children. The booklets were printed in both English and Somali and addressed various health concerns, such as malaria, food sanitation, and hand washing.

The back is all text and shows the flags of Somalia and the United Nations. Another oversized leaflet is identical on front and back and depicts a doctor at the left and Somali text at the right. RAJO articles generally focused on the following areas: military operations to secure Mogadishu and each of the major towns in the eight Humanitarian Relief Sectors; humanitarian relief provided to the famine areas; redevelopment efforts; hope for the future; and analyses of the reconciliation and national unity process.

Regular features Included interviews with relief agency staff; public health information on treating common childhood diseases; the status of Humanitarian Relief Sector security; reports on rebuilding the educational system and judicial Institutions; and forming local police forces and security councils.

The Joint Psychological Operations Task Force published up to 28, copies of RAJO daily; however, average daily publication quantities often did not exceed 15, copies because the supply of paper was limited and it was necessary to reduce wear and tear on the print presses. In an effort to encourage national unity and revitalize Somali traditional culture, RAJO sponsored a poetry contest and published the six winning entries in a special edition of the paper.

The newspaper and the radio are in the Somali language, an extremely difficult language. The work you all have done to put this into Somali is extremely important. It has made a big difference. The faction leaders, I know, read it very, very carefully. Every once in a while Aideed or Ali Mahdi or one of the other faction leaders draws to my attention something that appeared in the newspaper.

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4. Operations Restore Hope and Continue Hope, Somalia: A Case Study of the Medical Mission

So, they're very, very sensitive to it and they know its power. Encourage displaced persons to return to their homes to harvest crops and plant fields. Highlight the redevelopment and re-establishment of Somalia's infrastructure. Highlight the agreements made by faction leaders and the consequences for violating those agreements. Focus on the disarmament, keeping everyone apprised of the progress in each Humanitarian Relief Sector.

Rajo articles covered a number of relevant issues but generally focused on military operations to secure Mogadishu and each of the major towns, humanitarian relief provided to the famine areas, redevelopment efforts, hope for the future and analyses of the reconciliation and national-unity process. Regular features included interviews with relief-agency staff, public-health information on treating common childhood diseases, the status of security in each humanitarian-relief sector, reports on rebuilding the educational system and judicial institutions, and forming local police forces and security councils.

The program included readings from the Koran, Rajo newspaper articles, selections of Somali poetry and short stories, news about Africa , significant events throughout the world and Somali music. One of the most popular features of the newspaper was a cartoon devoted to the comments and the observations of a Somali man named Celmi after the U. He served in Somalia from December to May along with over other translators and linguists working with the operation. The civilians were sent to Somalia in military aircraft, wore U. He told me:. For the first operation in Somalia Operation Restore Hope , my main tasks were: Consultant augmenting the US Army's Joint Psychological Operation Task Force; I managed a radio station that broadcast daily programs, supervised and trained local employees; edited a daily newsletter, translated leaflets, handbills, posters, and handbooks; and produced mine awareness literature and recorded loudspeaker messages.

My main duties included: Service as a civilian linguist with the Joint Psychological Operation Task Force; deployed with the PSYOP Group and monitored and translated daily radio broadcasting of local languages; and summarized local newspapers to gauge the sentiments of the population. The Belleau Wood arrived off the coast of Mogadishu, Somalia on 8 February and participated in the landing of Marines ashore in Mogadishu for the evacuation of U.

The withdrawal marked the end of two years of U. He has repeatedly gone among the residents of Somalia to broadcast messages urging them to turn in arms and expose hidden weapons caches.


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He has been the very foundation for the publication of the Joint Task Force Somalia newspaper. He spent endless hours developing psychological operations leaflets, writing and editing articles and broadcast tapes encouraging a more peaceful way of life. He was the team leader for the publication of all psychological documents. He says in part:. Specialist Jeffrey Hood, a cartoonist, draws a daily strip featuring a young man named Celmi and his camel Maandeeq. They are talking. They are saying that we are like animals. A soldier from the U. The program included a reading from the Koran, a reading of the RAJO newspaper articles, selections of Somali poetry and short stories, news about Africa, significant events throughout the world, and Somali music.

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After extensive antenna adjustments, the radio programs broadcasted over short wave eventually reached every city and town in Somalia where UNITAF forces were deployed. For example, to encourage Somali clans to put aside their differences and rebuild their country, JPOTF staff members traveled to Marka where they interviewed President Abdullah Usmaan, Somalia's first head of state and an important symbol of national unity. Excerpts from his interview were published in the RAJO newspaper and broadcast over the radio. He was a naturalized citizen who was born in Mogadishu, and a contract interpreter for the State Department.

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He told the Americans not to broadcast a weather report. Weather comes from Allah, and it would be presumptuous for the Americans to attempt to guess what God might do next. He also insisted that the broadcasts start with a passage from the Koran. The station then played a Somali song and the local news. After that, the station played upbeat American music, which was a favorite of many Somalis. Radio Rajo began broadcasting with watts. It was first heard on kHz but in January was heard on the short-wave frequency kHz.

The humanitarian mission was multinational so the station later identified itself as the "Voice of the United Task Force. Italian psychological operations troops also broadcast Radio Ibis on One of my responsibilities was to coordinate our psychological and tactical operations. Though there were plenty of sources of "information," the Somalis had little access to accurate news accounts. Most Somali news sources -- notably, Aideed's--,were nothing but propaganda We published leaflets and a newspaper, and set up a radio station, to counter the lies.

The paper and radio station, which were called "Rajo"--"hope" in Somali--made Aideed very unhappy; and he counterattacked through his own radio station. A period of "radio wars" ensued. He agreed. Another victory for nonviolent engagement. According to Dr. The UN recognized this danger and ran influence campaigns, which were unsuccessful in convincing Somali parents to turn in the toy guns.

Lieutenant Colonel Charles P. The Italian forces came to Somalia confident in their ability to deal with the Somali people. Based on their historical relations, many Somalis spoke Italian, and the Italians believed that they would have a special relationship with the Somalis. This probably was true to some extent.

I paid the Italian force headquarters a visit.

4. Operations Restore Hope and Continue Hope, Somalia: A Case Study of the Medical Mission | RAND

He showed me several leaflets they had designed, translated into Somali and printed in Italy. They were color, high quality products, that used the phrase "help us to help you" that we adopted and used. One of the leaflets pictured an Italian doctor and nurse treating a baby; however, the baby they were treating was white. Borchini adds that the Italians also produced a bi-weekly newspaper for distribution in Mogadishu. The Italians had their own radio station, and although once again the Americans worried that they were producing independent PSYOP that might go against the JTF scheme, it turned out that, the station only broadcast music and messages from Italy for the Italian armed forces.

The few messages that they did send to the Somali people were concerning medical treatment and vaccinations.

In This Section

Although my initial feelings were that only the JTF should produce leaflets or a newspaper, or run a radio station, the intent of the Italians was pure. They wanted only to foster good relationships and promote peace, security and development in Somalia. Through close coordination, we were able to harness their efforts along with ours to maximize the overall PSYOP impact. This battalion, based in Andernach, consists of regular personnel. The Battalion consists of a Headquarters Company; Company Two produces radio and television programs live or video ; Company Three provides all printing capabilities; and Company Four provides loudspeaker teams.

The Germans normally deploy a small number of personnel to the theater of war, while all the PSYOP products are planned and designed in the Germany-based Headquarters Company. Their mission was to explain the role and objectives of the German forces to the local population, to explain the objectives of the UNOSOM II forces, and to maintain morale of the German troops.


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The German element deployed to Somalia was composed of 20 personnel in three teams; a functional Headquarters 4 personnel , a printed products team 12 personnel , and a loudspeaker team 4 personnel and four loudspeaker trucks. In addition, they printed 87, leaflets and 4, posters, many on the subject of landmine awareness.

They regularly took part in loudspeaker broadcasts and produced a weekly 45 minute radio program.

United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview
United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview
United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview
United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview
United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview United State Forces, Somalia After Action Report 1992-1994, Historical Overview

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