The Peoples Courts


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Appeals concerning conflicts resulting from exercising administrative functions are of an administrative and not of a civil nature.

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Even if the ALL calls xingzheng jiguan as defendants it serves to resolve social conflicts and to maintain social stability when such shiye danwei come to have the capacity to become defendants in administrative litigation. In an intermediate court in Fujian decided a case in which a middle-school teacher appealed against the request of the personnel office renshiju of a city to cancel a decision to prematurely retire and re-employ him. Although he received higher marks than needed for entering the school of his choice, he was not accepted because of his physical condition.

After the court had accepted the case, the school voluntarily reversed its decision and accepted the plaintiff as a student. However, it is clear that the overwhelming majority of administrative acts in question are still administrative sanctions. Next follow cases concerning infringement of the statutory business-autonomy of industrial enterprises or agricultural take-over contracts. Other cases refer to the request of administrative agencies to fulfil obligations which have no basis in law, e.

In other words, the courts rejected infringements by administrative agencies, mostly the Gongshang guanliju Agency for the Administration of Industry and Commerce , of the rights of enterprises to make decisions on production, management, investment, marketing, etc. In , the Agency for the Administration of Industry and Commerce of Qingdao lost a suit to geti gongshanghu —plaintiffs who fought successfully against the decision of the gongshangju to strip them of their business licences jingying zhizhao Here, attempts are being made to overcome the limits of the jurisdiction clause of art.

Plaintiffs who suffer harm as a result of improper administrative actions have the right to claim compensation in tort.

If damages are awarded, they are to be paid from the public funds of the administrative organs involved, possibly these organs can seek indemnification from the official at fault if he acted by intention or with gross negligence. The State Liability Law adds to the authority of the courts over administration organs. The State Liability Law does not apply. It also does not apply in a case where a city government, emphasising aims of environmental protection, decided under a new local regulation difangxing fagui to close and afforest a quarry in which several companies had been awarded long-term exploitation licences by the city.

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Compensating damages caused by this kind of non-illegal act is an open question. Some authors suggest supplementing the State Liability Law accordingly, while others are more in line with legal doctrine when requesting the promulgation of an extra State Compensation Law guojia buchang fa. The reasons are manifold. These fears have their roots not so much in any old-fashioned psychology inherited from the past, but in the Chinese constitution which does not accept a separation of power.

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The courts are therefore not only not independent from the executive but in practice very dependent, because they are funded by the government at the respective level and not directly by the central budget of the Supreme Court or the Ministry of Justice. For instance, the problem of distinguishing between concrete administrative acts which are reviewable and abstract administrative acts which are not.

This often means an escape for administrative agencies: they use the form of an abstract act, which in fact is directed to an ascertainable group of persons, therefore in substance a concrete act; however, courts, looking to the form, are reluctant to accept such cases.

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Here lies the main reason why the courts play only a very weak role in one of the most urgent problems in the countryside: the tax-burden of the peasants. The nature of the concrete administrative act has not been defined by law. This in turn is related to legal doctrine which has not yet elaborated reliable criteria to differentiate concrete administrative acts on the one hand, generally binding acts, internal acts, and acts of a non-compulsory nature on the other. This is contrary to most other administrative cases and of course any civil claim for compensation which can be taken straight to court.

During the s the tendency that the plaintiffs withdraw the lawsuit became more and more obvious. The reasons for this may be a change of mind in the person of the plaintiff, pressure and even intimidation by the defendant, suggestion of the court in order to please the defendant, but also the strategy of a plaintiff himself to bring a suit with the implied intention to induce the defendant to agree to an out-of-court settlement. They are often perceived as more favourable for the plaintiff, since the conflict may be settled fast and, above all, the plaintiff may spare a good deal of trouble with the agency in the future.

In the contrary, in spite of all obstacles, this role has become more prominent during the last few years.

The People’s Courts — Jed Handelsman Shugerman | Harvard University Press

Some Chinese research undertaken two years ago in Jiangsu 15 found that the influence of the courts became more important in the difficult field of birth planning. The president of the court or the chief judge of a division appoints one of the judges to act as the presiding judge of the collegial panel.

When the president of the court or the chief judge of a division participates in the judicial proceedings, he acts as the presiding judge. The task of the judicial committees is to sum up judicial experience and to discuss important or difficult cases and other issues relating to the judicial work. Members of judicial committees of local people's courts at various levels are appointed and removed by the standing committees of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels, upon the recommendation of the presidents of these courts.

The presidents of the people's courts preside over meetings of judicial committees of the people's courts at all levels; the chief procurators of the people's procuratorates at the corresponding levels may attend such meetings without voting rights. From a judgment or orders of first instance of a local people's court, a party may bring an appeal to the people's court at the next higher level in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law, and the people's procuratorate may present a protest to the people's court at the next higher level in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

Judgments and orders of first instance of the local people's courts at various levels become legally effective judgments and orders if, within the period for appeal, none of the parties has appealed and the procuratorate has not protested. Judgments and orders of second instance of intermediate courts, higher people's courts and the Supreme People's Court and judgments and orders of first instance of the Supreme People's Court are all judgments and orders of last instance, that is, legally effective judgments and orders. The Supreme People's Courts may, when it deems it necessary, authorize higher people's courts of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government to exercise the power to approve cases involving the imposition of death sentences for homicide, rape, robbery, causing explosions and others gravely endangering public security and disrupting social order.

If the Supreme People's Court finds some definite error in a legally effective judgment or order of the people's court at a lower level or if the people's court at a higher level finds such error in a legally effective judgment or order of the people's court at a lower level, it has the authority to review the case itself or to direct the lower-level people's court to conduct a retrial. If the Supreme People's Procuratorate finds some definite error in a legally effective judgment or order of a people's court at any level or if the people's procuratorate at a higher level finds such error in a legally effective judgment or order of any people's court at a lower level, it has the authority to lodge a protest in accordance with the procedure of judicial supervision.


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The people's courts at all levels shall hold themselves responsible for seriously handling a petition lodged by a party to a case against a legally effective judgment or order. The president of the court shall decide whether the member should withdraw.

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If a member of the judicial personnel considers that be should withdraw because he has an interest in the case or for any other reason, he should report the matter to the president of the court for decision. Local people's courts are responsible to and report on their work to the local people's congresses at corresponding levels and their standing committees. The judicial work of people's courts at lower levels is subject to supervision by people's courts at higher levels. A basic people's court may set up a criminal division, a civil division and an economic division, each with a chief judge and associate chief judges.

A people's tribunal is a component part of the basic people's court, and its judgments and orders are judgments and orders of the basic people's courts. When a basic people's court considers that a criminal or civil case it is handling is of major importance and requires trial by the people's court at a higher level, it may request that the case be transferred to that court for trial. Each intermediate people's court shall set up a criminal division, a civil division, an economic division, and such other divisions as are deemed necessary.

When an intermediate people's court considers that a criminal or civil case it is handling is of major importance and requires trial by the people's court at a higher level, it may request that the case be transferred to that court for trial.

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