Describes the common structural shapes in use and how they are joined to form members and complete structures Explains detailing practice and conventions Provides detailing data for standard sections, bolts and welds Emphasises the importance of tolerances in order to achieve proper site fit-up Discusses the important link between good detailing and construction costs Examples of structures include single and multi-storey buildings, towers and bridges. The detailing shown is suitable in principle for fabrication and erection in many countries, and the sizes shown will act as a guide to preliminary design.
The third edition has been revised to take account of the new Eurocodes on structural steel work, together with their National Annexes. The new edition also takes account of developments in 3-D modelling techniques and it includes more CAD standard library details. The detailing shown will be suitable in principle for fabrication and erection in many countries, and the sizes shown will act as a guide to preliminary design.
Search for:. Structural steel is a material having very wide capabilities and is compatible with and can be joined to most other materials, including plain concrete, reinforced or prestressed concrete, brickwork, timber, plastics and earthenware. Its co-efficient of thermal expansion is virtually identical with that of concrete so that differential movements from changes in temperature are not a serious consideration when these materials are combined.
Steel is often in competition with other materials, particularly structural concrete.
For However, articles which are larger than the bath external environments it is especially essential that all dimensions can by arrangement sometimes be gal- millscale is removed which forms when the hot surface of vanized by double-dipping. Although generally it is rolled steel reacts with air to form an oxide. If not removed preferable to process work in a single dip, the cor- it will eventually become detached through corrosion. Blast rosion protection afforded through double-dipping is cleaning is widely used to prepare surfaces, and other no different from that provided in a single dip.
Sizes processes such as hand cleaning are less effective although of articles which can be double-dipped should always acceptable in mild environments. Various national stan- be agreed with the galvanizers. By using double- dards for the quality of surface finish achieved by blast dipping UK galvanizing companies can now handle lengths up to Paint coats are normally stepped back at 30 mm intervals, with the first coat taken 10 to 15 mm inside the joint perimeter. For non friction bolted joints the first two workshop coats should be applied to the interfaces.
Where a decorative systems: or gloss finish is required then another system of overcoating must be used. Welded members, especially overcoated. As an residual stress and may need to be straightened. Hot alternative, consideration can be given to use of dip galvanizing is especially suitable for piece-small electro-plated bolts, degreased after tightening fol- fabrications which may be vulnerable to handling lowed by etch priming and painting as for the adja- damage, such as when despatched overseas.
Examples are towers or lattice girders with bolted site 3 Surfaces in contact with concrete should be free of aluminium spray give a durable coating more resis- cent surfaces. Indicative UK maximum single dip sizes length, depth, width of assemblies are: Lifting cleats should be provided for large fabricahandling damage. In some situations it would be advisable to 7. Flush fixings e. Weld access Unsafe practice re-entrant corner 2 corners not necessary Access for welding difficult same thickness where possible Small plate quantities Fixing difficult without excessive site rework 6 thick 10 thick Uneconomic Welds may be inferior Uneconomic 8 thick taper washers Sloping or skew connection Direction change of plates Figure 1.
The number of coats given is indicative. A different number of coats may be necessary depending upon the method of application in order to comply with the dry film thickness specified. Time indicated is approximate period in years to first major maintenance. The time will be subject to variation depending upon the micro-climate around the structure. Maintenance may need to be more frequent for decorative appearance.
Standards of surface preparation quality and finish should relate to cleanliness e. No maintenance up to 12 years Minor maintenance from 12 years Major maintenance after 20 years. Environments: Location of structures. Notes to Table 1.
- Note Editore.
- Full display page;
- Hollywood Screenwriting Directory Fall/Winter Volume 3: A Specialized Resource for Discovering Where & How to Sell Your Screenplay!
- Quiz Me On The Torah - Leviticus.
Usually they give all leading dimensions of the structure including alignments, levels, clearances, member size and show steelwork in an assembled form. Sometimes, especially for buildings, connections are not indicated and must be designed by the fabricator to forces shown on the engineer's drawings requiring submission of calculations to the engineer for approval. For major structures such as bridges the engineer's drawings usually give details of connections including sizes of all bolts and welds.
Most example drawings of typical structures included in this manual can be defined as engineer's drawings.
Engineer's drawings achieve the following purposes: 1 Basis of engineer's cost estimate before tenders are invited. Most contracts usually involve revisions at some stage due to the employer's amended requirements or due to unexpected circumstances such as variable ground conditions. Usually each member is shown fabricated as it will be delivered on site. Workshop drawings of members must include reference dimensions to main grid lines to facilitate cross referencing and checking. This is difficult to undertake without the possibility of errors if members are drawn only in isolation.
All extra welds or joints necessary to make up member lengths must be included on workshop drawings. Marking plans must form part of a set of workshop drawings to ensure correct assembly and to assist planning for production, site delivery and erection.
A General Arrangement drawing is often also required giving overall setting out including holding down bolt locations from which workshop drawing lengths, skews and connections have been derived. Often the engineer's drawings are inadequate for this purpose because only salient details and overall geometry will have been defined. Workshop drawings must detail camber geometry for girders so as to counteract where required and justified dead load deflection, including the correct inclinations of bearing stiffeners.
For site welded connections the workshop drawings must include all temporary welding restraints for attachment and joint root gap dimensions allowing for predicted weld shrinkage. Each member must be allocated a mark number. A requirement of most contracts is that work- Reference should be made to Chapter 6 Computer Aided shop drawings are submitted to the engineer for approval, Detailing for a review of the increasing use of CAD by but that the contractor remains responsible for any errors or engineers and steelwork contractors to improve their effi- omissions.
Most responsible engineers nevertheless carry out ciency and minimise costly errors in their workshop fabri- a detailed check of the workshop drawings and point out any cation processes and site construction activities. In this way any undesirable details are hopefully discovered before fabrication and the chance of error is reduced. Usually a marked copy is returned to the 1.
Australian steel detailers' handbook
Once approved the workshop drawings should for the design and construction of steelwork are as sum- be correctly regarded as contract drawings. In the structural Eurocodes, cer- Loading tain safety related numerical values such as partial safety factors are only indicative. The values to be used in practice have been left to be fixed by the national authorities in each country and published in the relevant National Application Document NAD.
The NAD also specifies the loading codes to be used for steel structures constructed in the UK, pending the availability of harmonised European loading information in the Eurocodes.
Steel Detailer's Manual - Alan Hayward, Frank Weare - Google книги
It also includes additional recommendations to enable the relevant Eurocode to be used for the design of structures in the UK. The relevant NAD should always be consulted for buildings to be constructed in any other country. Different design criteria may need to be applied for example in the cases of varied loadings, earthquake effects, temperature range and so on. In this manual any load capacities give are in the terms of BS ultimate strength i. They 1. The revised Part 12 published in is a Code for the design of hot rolled sections in buildings.
A guide is available26 giving member design capacities, together with those for bolts and welds. BS Part 52 deals with cold formed sections. BS uses the limit state concept in which various limiting states are considered under factored loads. The main limit states are: by Table 1. If a working load multiplied by the load factors from Table 1.
Steel Detailers' Manual
As an approximation a working load can be multiplied by an averaged load factor of say 1. The transition from BS to EC3 is inevitably a slow process and for the present, at least, both these two design standards will be used by UK designers. Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state Strength i. It is adopted by the main UK highway and assessment of material strengths are different so that any railway bridge authorities.
Full display page
It has been widely accepted in capacities given in this book, where applicable to bridges, other countries and used as a model for other Codes. The should not be used other than as a rough guide. In particular the intensity of highway loading is Part 2: Steel Bridges24 sets out the principles for the design increased to reflect the higher proportion of heavy com- of most types of steel road and railway bridges as well as mercial vehicles using UK highways since publication of the giving design rules for the steel parts of composite bridges.
For the design of steel and concrete composite bridges ENV Eurocode 4: Part will provide the future design BS uses a limit state concept similar to BS Many rules. Like building structures, the transition from BS of the strength formulae are similar but there are addi- to EC3: Part 2 and EC4: Part 2 is inevitably a slow process tional clauses dealing with, for example, longitudinally and for the present, at least, all of these design standards stiffened girders, continuous composite beams and fatigue.
- Steel Detailers' Manual.
- How to Search and Apply for Jobs;
- Chapter 01, Viral Diseases of Nonhuman Primates (American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine)?
Present day draughting practice is a mix of traditional drawing board methods and computer aided detailing systems. Whichever methods are used individual companies will have particular requirements suited to their own operation, but the guidance given here is intended to reflect good practice. Certain conventions such as welding symbols are established by a standard or other code and should be used wherever possible. Faint guide lines should be used and trainee detailers and engineers should be taught to practise the art of printing which, if neatly executed, increases user confidence.
Experienced detailers merely use a straight edge placed below the line when lettering. The minimum size is 2. Stencils should not be necessary but may be used for view of drawing titles which should be underlined. Underlining of other lettering should not be done except where special emphasis is required. Punctuation marks should not be used unless 2. Drawing sheet sizes should be standardised. Typical sizes used are shown in Table 2. Table 2. All drawings must contain a title block including company 2. Dimension lines should be thin but full lines stopped just short of the detail. Dimension figures should be placed immediately above the dimension line and near its centre.
Related Steel Detailers Manual
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved