Ding, Weixiang. DOI: Analysis of the oppositions of the Confucians and Mohists, arguing that Mencius both opposed and incorporated aspects of Mohist thought. Sees the views of Yang Zhu and Mozi as stages in the process of Confucian self-cultivation.
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Radice, Thomas. Challenges the views promoted within the Mencius that Mencian Confucianism was really a moderate position between Yangism and Mohism, and that the Mohists were against filial piety. Mencius and Mozi actually promote two different ideas about what constitutes filial piety, and Mencius argues against a view that is far easier for him to refute than what is presented in the Mozi.
Shun, Kwong-loi. Mencius and Early Chinese Thought. The most comprehensive treatment of Mencius in English, making extensive and felicitous use of commentarial literature. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
Mencius Lecture Notes
Not a member? Mencius is known for his view that xing usually translated as "nature" or "human nature" is good. When these seeds grow and become mature, they turn into four major virtues: benevolence, dutifulness, observance of propriety, and wisdom. These are not four independent virtues, but four different aspects of the general virtue of ren. When Mencius says that human nature is good, he does not mean that everything that is inborn is good.
Mencius (c. 372—289 B.C.E.)
He is fully aware that human nature itself is a complex, inclusive not only of elements that are good but also of elements that are either morally neutral or have little moral value. It makes them inductive arguments, an argument that does not lead to necessary truths. Only deductive arguments give us truths that are true in all cases and without exceptions, e. In assessing the value of philosophical analogies, we must ask two questions: Are the things compared similar? If these two questions can be answered in the affirmative, then a convincing argument from analogy probably exists.
In his book Practical Logic , Monroe C.
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Beardsley contends that there is no such thing as an argument from analogy. Beardsley does, however, give a good example of an analogy which is "strong" and which can be used to represent one thing as another. This is the analogy of a map: "The dots on the map are not very much like actual cities, and the lines on the map are not all like mountains or wet like rivers But the structure of the map, if it is a good one, corresponds to the structure of the country it represents.
That is, the shapes of the states are like the shapes on the map; It is clear that such analogies can be very helpful in clarifying the form and structure of some arguments, even to the point of discrediting a specific argument.
Mathematical ratios are perfect parallel deductive arguments. It is good, or more accurately, humans have the potential for goodness: Mencius. Such desires obviously can lead to either good or bad. Who is Gaozi anyway? A Daoist, as some say? Much more likely, as Schwartz says, he is a Confucian 2a2 speaks of him almost as a colleague who simply disagrees with Mencius about human nature. He is, for example, closer to Mencius than the Confucian Xunzi is. He also attained an undisturbed heart at an earlier age than did Mencius 2a2.
The wood is destroyed in making cups and bowls, but Mencius thinks that it is absurd to think that xing is destroyed in making humans moral. Lau puts the reductio ad absurdum in an interesting way. Further implication: Violence is done to the wood whether we make good bowls or bad ones. So violence is done to human nature whether the person becomes immoral or moral! This reading fits Confucian virtue ethics must better.
It gives a picture of crafting a noble soul from raw material that already has a potential for virtue-beauty in it. This firmly supports to a Confucian aesthetics of virtue. So for Gaozi sex and desire for food is human xing. Mencius: In that case all natures are the same?
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Reductio ad absurdum. Further analysis: "nature" is an "empty, formal term" and has to be filled with specific content, while "whiteness" already has minimum specific content, which will define it as the same predicate for all things that are qualified by it. As Lau states: "The nature of a thing depends entirely on what the thing is, while whether a thing is white or not depends on whether it includes the characteristic which we define as whiteness independently. Nature of whiteness is not the same as the essential nature of something.
Aristotle: the essence of the feather is not whiteness. It also shows in his back and extends to his limbs, rendering their message intelligible without words" Lau.
https://ustanovka-kondicionera-deshevo.ru/libraries/2020-04-17/1626.php A fusion of the inner and the outer. The Great Learning , a later Confucian text, relates the physiognomy of virtue to the practice of "self-watchfulness" shen du and making the will sincere. While the evil person thinks that he can do anything that he likes in private, the virtuous person knows better.
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